FUNCTIONAL COCKPIT DESIGN
Barry G. King
Aeronautical Engineering Review
Vol. 11, No. 6, June 1952, pp. 32 - 40.
This annotation is taken from: Annotated Bibliography of Applied Physical Anthropology in Human Engineering, by Robert Hansen and Douglas Y. Carnog, H. L. Yoh Company, Philadelphia, PA, Aero Medical Laboratory, Wright Air Development Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, May 1958.
"This article emphasizes the need for the human engineering of the airplane cockpit and stresses the fact that classical or standard anthropometry is often inappropriate to the determination of the most desirable cockpit dimensions. The author stresses that what is needed for functional cockpit design is an anthropometry of 'natural' cockpit situations. By natural' the author means body conditions that parallel those of normal operation or function, as distinguished from the posed body conditions dictated by standard anthropometric techniques. For example, King states, 'Values for both eye level and sitting height when maintaining a natural easy sitting position are about one-and-one-half to two inches less than when measured under the standardized (and sometimes artificial) postures used by anthropologists for comparison of races and groups.'
The report is eight pages long. It contains seven tables and three figures. The data presented are from the report.
TABLE 58 - 1
and Eye Level (in Inches) of Men Measured in
Anthropometric and Natural Sitting Postures (N = 100)
x*** ±sx ±s
height 36.20 0.132 1.32
Natural** sitting height 34.79 0.125 1.25
Anthropometric* eye level 31.32 0.126 1.26
Natural** eye level 29.66 0.124 1.24
* Standard anthropometric technique.
** Measured in natural easy sitting postures
*** x = mean, ±sx = standard deviation of mean, and ±s = standard deviation.
TABLE 58 - 2 *
Reach Measurements: The Maximum Distance at Which a Large Percentage of a General Pilot Population¹ Will Be Able To Reach and Operate Manual Controls Located at Various Points in the Work Area
Above Seat Angle (Degrees)
Reference Point 0 R15 R45 R75
13.7" 15.0" 17.0"
40 18.9 20.5 22.4 24.1
34 22.9 24.9 26.6 28.0
28 25.5 27.1 29.1 30.1
22 26.7 28.2 30.3 31.4
16 26.6 28.0 29.7 31.6
10 25.3 27.0 29.3 30.4
4 22.6 24.2 26.4 27.9
- 2 17.5 19.7 21.8 22.8
for right arm reach are measured from the vertical line through the reference
point with the subject's shoulders touching the back cushion; seat back 13°
from the vertical. The [Seat] [R}eference [P]oint is taken as the [center of
the] upper level of the seat cushion at its line of intersection with the
small lower cushions of the back pad (Warren McArthur seat). R15° stands for
15° to right. Reach for left arm can be outlined by using above measurements at
corresponding points to the left of 0°.
¹ These distances were suitable for 97.7 per cent of the 139 subjects studied at each position, and suitable for 94 per cent of the group at all positions.
TABLE 58 - 3
Mean Distances for Forward Head Movement of Seated Subjects
Restrained by Lap Safety Belt *
3-In. Belt, N = 100 2-In.
Belt, N = 96
_ _ _ _
x ±sx ±s x ±sx ±s
Test Condition In. In. In. In. In. In.
Natural 31.04 0.16
weight 34.00 0.15 1.509 34.11 0.16 1.600
weight 37.05 0.17 1.712 36.66 0.20 2.012
* Natural refers to maximum forward position of head which can be voluntarily assumed without action of suspended or drop weights."
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