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FUNCTIONAL COCKPIT DESIGN

Barry G. King

Aeronautical Engineering Review
Vol. 11, No. 6, June 1952, pp. 32 - 40.

This annotation is taken from: Annotated Bibliography of Applied Physical Anthropology in Human Engineering, by Robert Hansen and Douglas Y. Carnog, H. L. Yoh Company, Philadelphia, PA, Aero Medical Laboratory, Wright Air Development Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, May 1958.

"This article emphasizes the need for the human engineering of the airplane cockpit and stresses the fact that classical or standard anthropometry is often inappropriate to the determination of the most desirable cockpit dimensions. The author stresses that what is needed for functional cockpit design is an anthropometry of 'natural' cockpit situations. By natural' the author means body conditions that parallel those of normal operation or function, as distinguished from the posed body conditions dictated by standard anthropometric techniques. For example, King states, 'Values for both eye level and sitting height when maintaining a natural easy sitting position are about one-and-one-half to two inches less than when measured under the standardized (and sometimes artificial) postures used by anthropologists for comparison of races and groups.'

The report is eight pages long. It contains seven tables and three figures. The data presented are from the report.

TABLE 58 - 1

Sitting Height and Eye Level (in Inches) of Men Measured in
Anthropometric and Natural Sitting Postures (N = 100)

                                                                            _                _
                                                                            x***       sx         s

Anthropometric* sitting height                36.20     0.132     1.32
Natural** sitting height                              34.79     0.125     1.25
Anthropometric* eye level                        31.32     0.126     1.26
Natural** eye level                                       29.66     0.124     1.24

* Standard anthropometric technique.
** Measured in natural easy sitting postures
     _                     _
*** x = mean, sx = standard deviation of mean, and s = standard deviation.

TABLE 58 - 2 *

Reach Measurements: The Maximum Distance at Which a Large Percentage of a General Pilot Population Will Be Able To Reach and Operate Manual Controls Located at Various Points in the Work Area

                           Level (Inches)              
                             Above Seat                          Angle (Degrees)
                         Reference Point          0            R15          R45          R75

                                   46                     11.6"       13.7"        15.0"       17.0"
                                   40                     18.9         20.5          22.4         24.1
                                   34                     22.9         24.9          26.6         28.0
                                   28                     25.5         27.1          29.1         30.1
                                   22                     26.7         28.2          30.3         31.4
                                   16                     26.6         28.0          29.7         31.6
                                   10                     25.3         27.0          29.3         30.4
                                     4                     22.6         24.2          26.4         27.9
                                   - 2                     17.5         19.7          21.8         22.8

*  Distances for right arm reach are measured from the vertical line through the reference point with the subject's shoulders touching the back cushion; seat back 13 from the vertical. The [Seat] [R}eference [P]oint is taken as the [center of the] upper level of the seat cushion at  its line of intersection with the small lower cushions of the back pad (Warren McArthur seat). R15 stands for 15 to right. Reach for left arm can be outlined by using above measurements at corresponding points to the left of 0.

These distances were suitable for 97.7 per cent of the 139 subjects studied at each position, and suitable for 94 per cent of the group at all positions.


TABLE 58 - 3

Mean Distances for Forward Head Movement of Seated Subjects
Restrained by Lap Safety Belt *

                                 3-In. Belt, N = 100         2-In. Belt, N = 96
                                    _             _                   _             _
                                    x        sx       s        x        sx       s

Test Condition        In.          In.       In.        In.        In.        In.

* Natural               31.04      0.16    1.632    32.09     0.16     1.592
Static-suspended
  weight                34.00      0.15    1.509    34.11     0.16     1.600
Dynamic-drop
  weight                37.05      0.17    1.712    36.66     0.20     2.012

* Natural refers to maximum forward position of head which can be voluntarily assumed without action of suspended or drop weights."

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