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A COLLATION OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ANTHROPOMETRY

Kenneth W. Kennedy, Ph.D.
AAMRL-TR-85-062

Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-6573

January 1986

ABSTRACT: "Four major anthropometric surveys of United States Air Force personnel have been conducted since the end of World War II: that of male rated and non-rated flying personnel in 1950, of male recruits, enlisted and non-rated officers in 1965, of male rated officers and cadets in 1967, and of female officers and enlisted in 1968. Only two surveys have been adequately published: those of 1950 and 1968. For the purposes of this collation, four USAF subpopulations have been distinguished: (1) non-rated male officers and enlisted, (2) rated male officers and cadets, (3) non-rated female officers and enlisted personnel, and (4) rated female officers and cadets. The latter is an artificial subset of women taken from the 1968 survey and who meet the Air Force body-size criteria for entry into Undergraduate Pilot Training and retention as a rated officer. Dimension titles and descriptions are listed alphabetically and cross referenced such that the user can be quickly directed to the desired or to related body size data. Summary statistics consist of the number of subjects measured, the Mean, Standard Deviation, and the 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th and 99th percentile values for each dimension."

The sources of these anthropometric data are as follows. 

"Survey: 1965 survey of United States Air Force male officers and enlisted personnel [USAF.MEN].

     The survey of USAF male personnel conducted during the spring and summer of 1965 was planned and supervised by H.T.E. Hertzberg and later by M. Alexander and C.E. Clauser of the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, and by L.L. Laubach of the Anthropology Research Project then at Webb Associates, Yellow Springs, Ohio. The measuring team was composed of students from Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. In the first portion of the survey, 683 enlisted men were measured, along with 549 officers and 4 warrant officers. In the second half 106 enlisted men were measured, along with 2,632 basic trainees. All subjects were measured at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. Data measured on the basic trainees are not included in this Collation." 


"Surveys: Primary: 1967 survey of United States Air Force male rated officers [USAFLY.MEN].
                   Secondary: 1950 survey of United States Air Force male flying personnel. 

     The 1967 survey of United States Air Force male rated officers was conducted during the first three months of 1967. It was planned and conducted under the direction of C.E. Clauser, then Chief of the Anthropology Branch of the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (AMRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, with the collaboration of M. Alexander, K.W. Kennedy, J. Henninger, and J.W. Garrett of the AMRL, and E. Churchill and L.L. Laubach of the Anthropology Research Project, then at Webb Associates, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Subjects were measured at 17 Air Force bases across the contiguous United States. A total of 182 dimensions were taken on 2420 Air Force personnel between 21 and 50 years of age. Of these, 1187 were rated pilots, 505 were rated navigators, 505 were student pilots, and 188 were student navigators. Thirty-five were found to have AFSCs other than those sought. The measuring team consisted of trained students primarily from Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Summary statistics and descriptions of dimensions and measuring techniques for most of the variables are reported in A REVIEW OF ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA OF GERMAN AIR FORCE AND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE PERSONNEL, 1967-1968, edited by H.J. Grunhofer and G. Kroh, and published as [NATO] AGARD-AG-205, 1975. . . . Brief summary statistics on 58 selected body dimensions also have been reported in Chapter III, "Anthropometry," by J.T. McConville and L.L. Laubach, in ANTHROPOMETRY SOURCE BOOK, VOL. I, ANTHROPOMETRY FOR DESIGNERS, NASA Reference Publication 1024, 1978 . . ..

     The 1967 survey of USAF flying personnel was the second such major survey of this population. The first was conducted during the spring and summer of 1950. It was organized and directed by H.T.E. Hertzberg and G. Daniels and reported in ANTHROPOMETRY OF FLYING PERSONNEL - 1950, WADC TR 52-321 (AD 47 953), by H.T.E. Hertzberg, G.S. Daniels, and E. Churchill. . . . Subjects were measured at 14 Air Force bases in 7 states. The measuring team consisted of Antioch College students. The original statistical analysis was the initial activity of the Anthropology Research Project contract staff, then located at Antioch College. The data were analyzed and reported prior to the availability of modern computer facilities. Since this survey was first published, the data have been thoroughly reanalyzed using modern electronic computers. This has made it possible to include actual measured values to the nearest millimeter in the analyses, rather than notating the range within which each value was placed and analyzing the range data rather than the actual. Millimeter figures for most variables originally recorded but not punched on cards were incorporated into the reanalyzed data. Some 63 of the original 4063 subjects with missing body size values have been deleted. The entire body of data has been thoroughly reedited for errors." 


     "Survey: 1968 survey of United States Air Force female officers and enlisted personnel [USAF.WOM].

     The survey of women of the Air Force was made in the spring of 1968 by the Anthropology Branch, Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio and the Anthropology Research Project, then at Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. A description of the survey and the results are published in . . . [ANTHROMETRY] OF AIR FORCE WOMEN by C.E. Clauser, et al., AMRL-TR-70-5 (AD 746 113), Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1972 . . .. Data for age, 123 body size measurements, and grip strength were obtained from a sample of 1,905 women. Thirteen measurements were repeated on 1,513 subjects with the subjects wearing foundation garments. Age is reported in tenths of years. Weight is reported in pounds. All other variables were recorded in millimeters."


     "1968 Subset of female USAF personnel meeting the body size requirements for entry into USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training and retention as a rated officer [USAF.MEN]. 

     The subset to represent women pilots was extracted by selecting from the 1968 USAF survey only those women who meet the Air Force body size criteria for entry into Undergraduate Pilot Training and retention as a rated officer. Specifically, only those women 18 years of age . . . or older and between 34 and 39 inches, inclusive, in Sitting Height were eligible. In addition, all members of the subset had to meet one of the following Height-Weight relationships. 

                    Height                                                Weight
                     inches                              Minimum               Maximum

                       64                                       103                         139
                       65                                       106                         144
                       66                                       108                         148
                       67                                       111                         152

                       68                                       114                         156
                       69                                       117                         161
                       70                                       119                         165
                       71                                       122                         169
                       72                                       125                         174

                       73                                       128                         179
                       74                                       130                         185
                       75                                       133                         190
                       76                                       136                         196"

     "Dimension titles are listed alphabetically and cross referenced such that if a user knows a dimension only by a common name, such as "Height." he can be quickly directed to the title used by the Air Force anthropologists, "Stature," where the description and summary statistics are stated. There are many such cross references. References to dimensions similar to the one of primary concern are also included, the purpose being to alert the user to alternative and related dimensions.

     The summary statistics reported here consist of the number of subjects (n), Mean . . ., Standard Deviation (SD), and the 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. Convenient allotment of space did not permit the inclusion of additional data, such as Coefficient of Variation (CV) and additional percentiles. . . . Additional percentiles can be approximated through the addition and subtraction of multiples of the Standard Deviation to and from the Mean. Listed in Table 1 are multipliers that can be applied to the Stantdard Deviation and used to calculate estimates of selected percentiles based on the normal distribution. Their accuracy will be a function of the closeness with which the distribution of the specific dimension approximates normal or symmetry. 

 Table 1. Factors for Estimating Selected Percentiles . . .

                      1st and 99th Percentiles = Mean 2.33 X SD
                    2nd and 98th Percentiles = Mean 2.06 X SD
                     3rd and 97th Percentiles = Mean 1.88 X SD
                     5th and 95th Percentiles = Mean 1.65 X SD
                   10th and 90th Percentiles = Mean 1.28 X SD
                   15th and 85th Percentiles = Mean 1.04 X SD
                   20th and 80th Percentiles = Mean 0.84 X SD
                   25th and 75th Percentiles = Mean 0.67 X SD
                   30th and 70th Percentiles = Mean 0.53 X SD
                   35th and 65th Percentiles = Mean 0.39 X SD
                   40th and 60th Percentiles = Mean 0.25 X SD
                   45th and 55th Percentiles = Mean 0.13 X SD"  


A sample page follows. 

                                       "MEAN      SD           1%        5%         50%       95%       99%

      SOURCE                      in           in             in           in           in            in            in
             n                             cm         cm           cm         cm        cm          cm          cm 

ACROMION HEIGHT, SITTING - see also Acromion Height, Standing and Midshoulder Height, Sitting. 
     Subject sits erect, head in the Frankfort plane, arms hanging relaxed, and forearms and hands extended forward horizontally - the vertical distance from the sitting surface to the right Acromiale. 

          USAFLY.MEN      24.04      1.12        21.4       22.2       24.0       25.9        26.7 
              n = 2420            61.05      2.85        54.4       56.5       61.0       65.9        67.7

ACROMION HEIGHT, STANDING - see also Acromion Height, Sitting and Midshoulder Height, Sitting. 
     Subject stands erect - the vertical distance from the standing surface to the right Acromiale. 

          USAF.MEN           56.82      2.45        51.2       52.8      56.8        60.9       62.8
               n = 1236         144.32      6.22      130.0     134.2   144.3      154.7     159.5

          USAF.WOM         51.91      2.16        47.3       48.4       51.9       55.6       57.0
               n = 1905        131.86      5.48      120.1     123.0     131.7    141.1     144.7

          USAFLY.WOM   54.00      1.47        51.3       51.8       53.9       56.7        57.9 
               n = 455         137.16      3.74      130.3     131.6     136.8     143.9     147.0 

ACROMION-RADIALE LENGTH - see also Shoulder-Elbow Length
     Subject stands erect (Typ.) with arms hanging at sides - the straight-line distance between the right Acromion and the right Radiale. 

           USAFLY.MEN   12.97         .67        11.4      11.9       13.0        14.1       14.6
              n = 2420          32.95       1.70        29.1      30.2       32.9        35.8       37.0

           USAF.WOM       12.21         .64        10.8      11.1       12.2        13.2       13.7
              n = 1905          31.01       1.63        27.4      28.3       31.0        33.6       34.7

           USAFLY.WOM  12.61        .54        11.3      11.7       12.6        13.5       14.0
              n = 455             32.02      1.36        28.7      29.6       32.1        34.2       35.5 

ACROMION-TO-BICEPS CIRCUMFERENCE LEVEL
     Subject stands erect (Typ.) with arms hanging at sides - the straight-line distance between the right Acromiale and the indentation at the distal margin of the deltoid muscle. 

           USAFLY-MEN   7.48          .59          6.1         6.5         7.5          8.5         8.9
              n = 2420        19.01        1.50        15.6       16.5      19.0        21.5       22.6"    

The Report concludes with a GLOSSARY OF SELECTED TERMS.
                

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